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ITER NEWSLINE 124
The French Minister of Economy and her colleague the Minister of Environment and Sustained Development will receive a rather large parcel this week — we have just mailed them the seven-volume, 5,243-page document that we call "the DAC files", short for Demande d'Autorisation de Création.
The completion of this fundamental legal document, which provides a detailed description of the ITER installation, an updated preliminary safety report (RPrS) and other required licensing files, marks a very important moment in the life or our project. A first step toward the Enquête Publique and the basis of future discussions with the French safety authorities, these documents will enable us to obtain our nuclear license.
Writing, laying out, printing, binding and sending off these 5,243 pages has been our priority for the past year and a half. We've all worked very hard to finalize these documents, not only in the Nuclear, Safety and Environment Division, which played a key part in the whole process or our Department for Safety and Security, but throughout our whole Organization. I want to thank you all for this very important contribution to the success of our project.
So what happens now? Experts at the two Ministries will analyze the DAC files, possibly request more information, and then pass them on to the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN). ASN may also require complementary information before declaring that our application is "receivable". This back-and-forth process is expected to last until we get the green light to start the Enquête Publique — most probably in the autumn.
From that point on, we'll be embarking on a thirty-year scientific, technological and human adventure that has almost no equivalent in history.
Although the fusion process occurs naturally in the sun and the stars, on earth it requires unique machines, special knowledge, collaboration and a great deal of patience. A star has such a large mass that its own gravity holds its plasma together, allowing fusion reactions to continue and energy to be produced. In laboratory devices, because plasma particles will follow magnetic fields, magnets are used to hold the plasma together and away from the walls of its container, to confine it long enough for fusion to occur.
C-Mod is the third in a series of Alcator tokamaks developed at MIT since the 1960s. Characterized by a donut-shaped vacuum chamber wrapped in high-field magnets, the Alcator approach makes it possible to produce very dense and well-confined plasmas in a relatively compact device. (The name
"Alcator" comes from alto campo torus: high field torus.) This approach allowed an earlier experiment, Alcator C, to produce the first magnetically confined plasma with sufficient density and confinement to eventually achieve "breakeven." To actually realize breakeven would require higher temperatures than those reached in Alcator C.
Research on Alcator C-Mod focuses on several key issues:
These areas of research, and the diagnostics used to explore them, are typical subjects of doctoral dissertations. Alcator C-Mod is one of the premier experimental facilities for training the next generation of plasma scientists. Typically there are about 30 graduate students working on Alcator C-Mod. On any given day a student could be running the experiment, collecting data and gaining new insights into plasma behavior.
Research on Alcator C-Mod contributes to an international tokamak project, being built in France: ITER. Designed to study the science of "self-sustained" (burning) plasma, ITER will be the largest tokamak ever created.
Fusion energy research at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center is supported by the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy.
The DNB system will deliver a beam of neutral hydrogen atoms of 100keV energy at 20-22A of beam current into the ITER plasma to be used primarily (through charge exchange spectroscopy) for measurement of helium ash in the tokamak. It will involve extraction of an unprecedented 60A current of accelerated hydrogen ions from a radio frequency-based ion source, before they are neutralized and injected in the magnetized plasma. The beam will also be modulated at a frequency of 5Hz as diagnostic requirement and have a re-ionization loss of less than 6%. All these parameters demand first-of-its-kind, cutting-edge technology and R&D which is already underway.
The Indian portion of the Cooling Water System consists of three large subsystems — the Component Cooling Water System (CCWS), the Chilled Water System (CHWS) and the Heat Rejection System (HRS). The CCWS provides cooling water to various components of ITER, including the Primary Heat Transfer System, at an inlet temperature of 28°C. It transfers a total of ~1.2 GW of heat from these components to HRS with a water flow rate up to ~8000 kg/s. The CHWS will provide chilled water mainly for HVAC applications and also for cooling of some components with an inlet water temperature of 6oC and a total water flow rate of ~750kg/s. The HRS is a system of large cooling towers — the final heat sink of the overall ITER plant, rejecting a total heat of up to 1.2GW to the atmosphere.
The signature of these two Procurement Arrangements brings India's total to five. India has now signed for a total value of 123.9 kIUA out of a kitty of 244.21kIUA worth of components to be delivered to ITER. India has crossed the 50% mark of signed Procurement Arrangements for its deliverables to ITER.
Thursday 25 and Friday 26 March, some 20 IT Officers from the ITER Domestic Agencies gathered here at Headquarters to meet their counterparts, present their own "IT landscape" and discuss such topics as unifying communication systems, database replication or applications interconnection.
In lay language, as explains IT expert Cédric Chaumette who organized the event, this translates into "gains in efficiency and reductions in cost by using the same tools throughout the ITER worldwide network."
Considering the benefits of this type of "in person" meeting, IT plans to organize one every year.
Last Friday, Danai Tsukhara was welcomed at ITER by Director-General Kaname Ikeda and was later given the opportunity to meet most of the Japanese staff (29 persons) for a cocktail at the Château.
The Japanese Consul General in Marseille has jurisdiction over four French regions: PACA, Languedoc-Roussillon, Midi-Pyrénées and Corsica. Some 2,400 Japanese nationals live in that area, half of them married to French citizens.
"We have to make absolutely sure that everything is going in the right direction," explains Robert Pearce, ITER Vacuum Pumping Section Leader and the organizer of the review. "It is very important, at this stage, to present the design status to a panel of distinguished independent experts that will see if there's a problem we haven't identified and come up with pertinent suggestions..."
Wolfgang Obert, Cryogenic Group Leader at JET, who was responsible for the cutting edge design and operation of JET cryogenics system, was the review Chair. He was supported by: Hans Falter, who led the development of neutral beams at JET and IPP, Garching; Laurent Tavian, responsible for CERN's cryogenic systems; and Larry Baylor, a world expert in pellet injection development.
All together, the meeting was attended by more than 60 people from ITER, the European Domestic Agency F4E and European Associates either at HQ or through video conference. This PDR for the ITER Cryopumps and Front End Cryodistribution System was one of the largest ever held at ITER.
The next big step is scheduled for the end of the year, with the call for tender for a full size pre-production torus cryopump.
The environment in which cables will operate will be cramped and aggressive. Their organization, routing and integration require a lot of thinking and planning, especially since the installation will be in constant evolution.
Dealing with this complexity is the job of Joël Hourtoule's Steady State Electrical Network (SSEN) Section. He and his cablemen have experience in machines that resemble ITER: Joël was in charge of cable management at Tore Supra; David Beltran, ITER's newly appointed Cable Engineering Responsible Officer, comes fresh from the Spanish synchrotron CELLS and Cable Database Technical Engineer Jashwant Sonara was until recently with the Indian Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1).
ITER, however, is different, and not just because of its size and experimental nature. As components will be procured by the seven Domestic Agencies and as the installation is composed of various interacting "plant systems", the documentation issue is at the core of cable engineering's challenge.
"A nuclear operator must know his installation down to the smallest of its components," explains Joël. Descriptive documents, which Safety Authorities can request at any time, must be perfectly accurate and constantly updated. "This means that we must know precisely what goes into the components that are delivered through Procurement Arrangements, especially those that fall under the "Functional Specification" category. It also means that we have to work in close collaboration with the different plant systems within ITER to centralize their data."
This will be accomplished by establishing procedures and "best practice" guidelines and by implementing tools to create and fill databases. "People in Plant Systems have experience from other installations. They know that when not properly managed a cable issue can turn into a nightmare ... and a costly one at that."
Last February, Joël and some of his colleagues, along with Central Integration and Engineering (CIE) specialists, participated in a meeting at Laser Megajoule (LMJ) near Bordeaux to discuss cable engineering strategies. The construction of the LMJ inertial fusion facility is presently at the stage where ITER will besix years from now, and there is a lot to learn from their experience.
Cable engineering in ITER is "an industrial and organisational issue, but not only" stresses Joël. "We need good will and a constant dialogue with our colleagues in the plant systems. What it comes down to in the end is that it's a human issue."
The contract with SFA Engineering Corp covers the design of all assembly tools allocated to the KO DA. It also covers the manufacture of the sector sub-assembly tools, which are those required for the very first stages of ITER assembly.
SFA has been involved with the conceptual designs of the ITER assembly tools through design contracts from the KO DA since 2005. With this latest contract, the company will move on to the next stage: design and manufacturing of the assembly tools.
In the scope of the Procurement Arrangement for assembly tooling that was signed last August between the ITER Organization and KO DA, the KO DA is responsible for procuring 122 different types of purpose-built assembly tools for ITER. These mainly motor-driven or hydraulic-powered tools are designed to accomplish specific tasks - lifting, adjusting, supporting, transporting, aligning - during assembly of the ITER Tokamak device.
"This is a very challenging procurement," says Kihak Im, Responsible Engineer for the in-kind assembly tooling at ITER. "The size and weight of the components, as well as the very tight tolerances for manoeuvring, puts this in the realm of 'never-before attempted'. In some cases, we'll be working with tolerances of 2-3 millimetres to position components that stand 20 metres high and weigh hundreds of tons."
The contract with SFA is for a period of 54 months. The contracts for the manufacture of the remaining assembly tools will be placed before May 2012.
The first seaplane in history took off from the waters of Étang de Berre one hundred years ago, on 28 March 1910. It was a frail-looking machine equipped with a small 50 HP engine. Its designer and pilot, an engineer from Marseille named Henri Fabre, rode it astride, as if riding a winged horse.
Pegasus, however, was not the name Henri Fabre chose for his "hydro-aeroplane". The 27-year old engineer preferred to name his invention Le Canard (The Duck).
On that first flight, Le Canard flew a distance of about 500 metres, twice as far as the Wright brothers' aeroplane seven years earlier at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. On the same day, Fabre, who had never flown before, not even as a passenger, performed five other flights and made an elegant landing — or "alighting" which is more proper for seaplanes — in the Martigues marina.
Henri Fabre, whose feat will be celebrated throughout the region this week-end, opened the way for long-distance commercial flight. A good decade before regular aircrafts, seaplanes were to venture across the transatlantic route.
Unaware that it was paying homage to Henri Fabre, Pan American Airlines opened the world's first transatlantic passenger service in 1939, between New York and Marseille. And just as Le Canard had done 29 years earlier, the fabled Yankee Clipper, Boeing's 74-passenger luxury "flying boat", would land on and take off from the waters of Étang de Berre.
Work has been ongoing for the past three weeks to create a new lot that will provide 347 parking spaces for both ITER and Fusion for Energy staff working at JWS3, and also for worksite workers.
Surveys and levelling of the area around JWS3 have been completed and a whole set of operations is now underway: embankments (3 700 square metres) are being seeded with vegetation; roadways and underground storm basins are being created; manifolds for the drinking water network are being installed and three access gates are being opened in the 200 metre-long fence that secures the area.
Finishing work will follow, including exterior lighting.
All in all, some forty people from six companies, most of them local, are at work on this project.