The ITER Story
Fossil fuels were the energy source that shaped 19th and 20th century civilization. But burning coal, oil and gas has proved highly damaging to our environment. Carbon dioxide emissions, greenhouse effect gases, and fumes all contribute to the disruption in the balance of our planet's climate.
Global energy consumption is set to triple by the end of the century. And yet supplies of fossil fuels are depleting and the environmental consequences of their exploitation are serious. Two questions loom over humanity today: how will we supply all this new energy, and how can we do so without adding dangerously to atmospheric greenhouse gases?
No single nation can face these challenges alone.
International Collaboration for a New Source of Energy
Twenty-five years ago, a group of industrial nations agreed on a project to develop a new, cleaner, sustainable source of energy.
US President Reagan and General Secretary Gorbachev of the Soviet Union agreeing to pursue an international effort to develop fusion energy for the benefit of all mankind. (Geneva, 1985)
At the Geneva Superpower Summit in November 1985, following discussions with President Mitterand of France and Prime Minister Thatcher of the United Kingdom, General Secretary Gorbachev of the former Soviet Union proposed to U.S. President Reagan an international project aimed at developing fusion energy for peaceful purposes.
The ITER project was born. The initial signatories: the former Soviet Union, the USA, the European Union (via EURATOM) and Japan, were joined by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Korea in 2003, and by India in 2005. Together, these six nations plus Europe represent over half of the world's population.
Conceptual design work for the fusion project began in 1988, followed by increasingly detailed engineering design phases until the final design for ITER was approved by the Members in 2001. Further negotiations established the Joint Implementation Agreement to detail the construction, exploitation and decommissioning phases, as well as the financing, organization and staffing of the ITER Organization.
In ITER, the world has now joined forces to establish one of the largest and most ambitious international science projects ever conducted. ITER, which means "the way" in Latin, will require unparalleled levels of international scientific collaboration. Key plant components, for example, will be provided to the ITER Organization through in-kind contributions from the seven Members. Each Member has set up a domestic agency, employing staff to manage procurements for its in-kind contributions. The ITER Members have agreed to share every aspect of the project: science, procurements, finance, staffing ... with the aim that in the long run, each Member will have the know-how to produce its own fusion energy plant.
Selecting a location for ITER was a long process that was finally concluded in 2005. In Moscow, on June 28, high representatives of the ITER Members unanimously agreed on the site proposed by the European Union—the ITER installation would be built at Cadarache, near Aix-en-Provence in Southern France.
ITER Agreement is signed
The ITER Agreement was officially signed at the Elysée Palace in Paris on 21 November 2006 by Ministers from the seven ITER Members. In a ceremony hosted by French President Jacques Chirac and the President of the European Commission M. José Manuel Durao Barroso, this Agreement established a legal international entity to be responsible for construction, operation, and decommissioning of ITER.
Elysée Palace, Paris, France on November 21, 2006.
A "Broader Approach" agreement for complementary research and development was signed in February 2007 between the European Atomic Energy Community (known by its initials EURATOM) and the Japanese government. It established a framework for Japan to conduct research and development in support of ITER over a period of ten years. Within the Broader Approach three projects were set into motion that focus on the following areas: materials testing, advanced plasma experimentation and simulation, and the establishment of a design team to prepare for DEMO—the demonstration power plant that will be the next step after ITER. The Broader Approach projects carry great importance for the advancement of fusion energy and will complement the global efforts on realizing ITER.
On 24 October 2007, following ratification by all Members, the ITER Agreement entered into force and officially established the ITER Organization.