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News & Media

Latest ITER Newsline

  • Summer postcards from the ITER worksite

    The latest harvest of ITER construction photos may be taken from the same point—the tallest crane on site—but there is always an abundance of new detail to be g [...]

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  • The ring fortress

    ITER'ssteel-and-concretebioshield has become the definingfeature of Tokamak Complex construction. Twolevels only remain to be poured (out of six). It is a 'rin [...]

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  • The wave factory

    A year ago, work was just beginning on the steel reinforcement for the building's foundation slab. The Radio Frequency Heating Building is now nearing the last [...]

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  • It's all happening inside

    Since the giant poster was added to the Assembly Hall's completed exterior in June 2016 the building has lookedfrom afar like a finished project. Butinside, tea [...]

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  • Along skid row

    They look like perfectly aligned emergency housing units. But of course they're not: the 18 concrete structures in the ITER cryoplant are massive pads that will [...]

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Of Interest

See archived articles

The plasma starter

-Mark Henderson, Electron Cyclotron Section leader

Each of ITER's 24 gyrotrons will generate a microwave beam over a thousand times more powerful than a traditional microwave oven. Last month, Japan presented an advanced gyrotron design to an international team of experts and representatives from the ITER Organization. (Click to view larger version...)
Each of ITER's 24 gyrotrons will generate a microwave beam over a thousand times more powerful than a traditional microwave oven. Last month, Japan presented an advanced gyrotron design to an international team of experts and representatives from the ITER Organization.
About ten years from now, a signal from the ITER Control Room will trigger the operation of eight gyrotrons. Each gyrotron will generate a microwave beam over a thousand times more powerful than a traditional microwave oven.

These microwave beams will travel along 160 metres of waveguide and then launch into the ITER Tokamak to ionize the neutral gas and generate the very first ITER plasma, in much the same way that a spark plug ignites your car motor. The eight gyrotrons in place for ITER's First Plasma will be joined by sixteen others to initiate every plasma during operation, as well as provide heating to the plasma, drive current, and stabilize plasma instabilities.

Russia developed the first gyrotron back in 1964, generating 6W at 10GHz for continuous operation. Since then, scientists around the world have steadily increased gyrotron output power, which now approaches 2MW.

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency, in collaboration with Toshiba, manufactured the first gyrotron to demonstrate 1MW for >400 s, compatible with ITER requirements of 2006. Last month, an advanced gyrotron design was presented to an international team of experts and representatives from the ITER Electron Cyclotron Section and interfacing areas. Of four contributing parties to the 24 ITER gyrotrons (Japan, Russia, Europe, and India), Japan is the first to present its gyrotron at the final design stage. (Final design reviews for the others are planned shortly.)

The Japanese Domestic Agency Final Design Review panel included electron cyclotron scientists from the DIII-D tokamak (US), the Large Helical Device (LHD, Japan) and the ASDEX-Upgrade tokamak (Germany) along with representatives of the ITER Organization. The other Domestic Agencies involved with gyrotron development were also present at the review meeting. The panel assessed the Japanese design as mature and issued no category 1 chits.

This first Final Design Review in Japan concentrated on the gyrotron tube and assembly; a second is planned to focus on the interface with the high voltage power supply and related devices. In 2015, the Japanese Domestic Agency expects to initiate the call for tender procedure for the manufacturing of the first two gyrotrons, which will arrive on the ITER site in early 2018. These gyrotrons will then be integrated with high voltage power supplies (procured by India and Europe), transmission lines (procured by the US), and launchers (procured by Japan and Europe).


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